Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus is rare. We identified one patient over a period of 15 years. This patient was a 80 years-old caucasian man. No association was found with tobacco or ethanol use, nor was there a personal or family history of malignant melanoma. Symptoms were related to obstruction. This tunor was polypoid in its upper part and ulcero-infiltrant in its lower part. Histologically the melanoma had epithelioid spindle cells. The neoplasm was immunoreactive for S-100 protein and non reactive with anti-cytokeratins. This patient was treated by Garlock type, esophagectomy with excision of 13 cm of esophagus and 2 cm of stomach. The survival was of only 3 days, because he developed acute respiratory and cardiac disease syndrome and died. (AU)..